Comment construirons-nous la chine rêvée?我们怎样建设“心底的中国”?

Publié le par Peiyun Xiong

 熊培云

几天前,我在《南方都市报》上发表关于贵州毒煤的评论,置疑国家财政累进支出是否有失公正及当地人大代表是否尽职等问题,引来我的朋友、乐评人姜弘先生的批评。姜先生在来信中称我陷入了一场没有意义与结果的争论,而忽视具体的细节与方法。譬如应该号召有关媒体或机构为“半数贵州人”发起募捐活动(见《南方都市报》众议栏目)。一方面,这种“离贵州人更近一些”的言说让我有些惭愧,因为我没有尽可能多地表达自己关于此人道灾难的建设性意见。这也是我立即将信件转给何雪峰先生并请求刊发的原因,人的思考有时是相通的,因此这也算是我的一种自我批评;另一方面,我认为姜先生部分曲解了我的言说,因此有必要加以澄清。 

姜先生在文中写到,“人本主义与人道主义在中国的重塑不是一朝一夕的事情,呼吁是必要的,但这“心底的中国”与“现实的中国”存在着如此巨大的鸿沟。当教育、文化、信仰等诸多人本主义与人道主义普及的关键环节依然存在诸多症结的时候,这呼吁多少显得有些苍白。”关于这个批评,我并不赞同。如果只是因为这种问责“泱泱鸿篇巨制也探讨不完的”,就放弃讨论纷纷下放到田间,那么一方面我们在做力所能及的事情,尽一个好人的本分,另一方面,我们同时又做了逃兵,因为我们在最需要持之以恒的战斗的阵地上脱逃了。 

以上分歧,其实质是我们该怎样建设一个“心底的中国”。和许多致力于中国改造的朋友一样,我同样相信,中国今日之改革已经进入细节。但是,这种细节并不意味着每个人都立刻进入田野,宣扬人道主义也不是号召每个人都去做慈善事业。事实上,目前最关键最难推动的仍是制度与观念上应有的转变,因为二者在既得利益与个人习得方面都保持着巨大的惯性。过高地估计慈善救济社会的功效,实际暗藏着对政治改革的一种悲观。然而,如果人们放弃批评,只能助长了这种悲观,在客观上增加了改革的难度。 

我们看到,虽然目前仍有许许多多不尽人意的地方,但是宏观而论,“现实中的中国”每天都在进步。比如说35日温家宝总理郑重承诺,从今年起,免除国家扶贫开发工作重点县农村义务教育阶段贫困家庭学生的书本费、杂费,并补助寄宿学生生活费,到2007年,全国农村普遍实行这一政策。 

为什么中国搞了这么多年的希望工程,而失学的队伍越走越长?理由很简单,问题出在政策上。因为在过去,我们不但没有像欧洲国家一样对贫困落后地区实施积极歧视,进行救助,反而让农民为进一步深化改革支付更多的成本。在这种大背景下,希望工程所能起到的作用,更像是安慰一个时代的良心工程,它能部分缓解病痛,但并不能使病人康复。上述系列农村教育改革,显然不是拜希望工程所赐,而是社会各界寻根溯源、积极推动农村教育进行制度性改造的开花结果。 

号召为“半数贵州人”捐款那当然是件好事情。但是,如果为了提倡捐款这个“离贵州人更近”的细节而轻视或否定必要的问责,并将此视之为无法“解渴”的“情绪与理论”,未免有失公允与客观。 

在我看来,突如其来的人道灾难,如同发生在大街上一场车祸。我们假设肇事司机是个酒鬼,当他撞了人之后,他的车继续在大街上横冲直撞。此时,有人上去抢救伤员,有人去制止肇事司机。谁能说两者行为矛盾重重? 

事实上,一个制度的先天性缺陷就像酒后驾车的酒鬼。如果你不去制止他,他仍有可能撞上行人。如果我们只是出于标榜一种可以看得见摸得着的同情,号召所有人都“靠近受伤者”而不去制止下一场车祸发生,那么我们遇到的尴尬将是受伤者未必能治好,而大街的另一端新的死伤仍在源源不断地增加。 

笔者以为,一切制度不完善所引发的人道灾难,不能仅靠人道主义救援来解决。救治与改良一个社会的最好方式是兵分两路:一部分人积极救治伤员,另一部分人去逮住那个肇事的酒鬼。我之所以这样建议,是因为我坚守一个常识,不诉诸于制度改良的人道主义只能是头痛医头、脚痛医脚的人道主义,难免扶起东来西又倒。在此基础上,我们有理由相信,找出人道灾难的根源与积极救治同样重要。开全体大会研究是否下水救一个快要淹死的人诚然可耻,但是凭什么我们要以包扎伤口为由,放过那些动刀子的人?

 

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